The Yorktown Growth Fund, Yorktown Capital Income Fund, Yorktown Multi-Asset Income Fund, Yorktown Short Term Bond Fund, Yorktown Master Allocation Fund, Yorktown Small Cap Fund and Yorktown Mid Cap Fund (collectively, the “Funds”) utilize various methods to measure the fair value of most of their investments on a recurring basis. Generally accepted accounting principles establish a hierarchy that prioritizes inputs to valuation methods. The three levels of inputs are:
• Level 1—Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets that the Funds have the ability to access.
• Level 2—Observable inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset, either directly or indirectly. These inputs may include quoted prices for the identical instrument on an inactive market, prices for similar instruments, interest rates, prepayment speeds, credit risk, yield curves, default rates and similar data.
• Level 3—Unobservable inputs for the asset, to the extent relevant observable inputs are not available, representing a Fund’s own assumptions about the assumptions a market participant would use in valuing the asset, and would be based on the best information available.
The availability of observable inputs can vary from security to security and is affected by a wide variety of factors, including, for example, the type of security, whether the security is new and not yet established in the marketplace, the liquidity of markets, and other characteristics particular to the security. To the extent that valuation is based on models or inputs that are less observable or unobservable in the market, the determination of fair value requires more judgment. Accordingly, the degree of judgment exercised in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3.
The inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, for disclosure purposes, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement falls in its entirety is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.
The inputs or methodologies used for valuing securities are not necessarily an indication of the risk associated with investing in those securities. The following is a summary of the inputs used, as of April 30, 2019, in valuing the Funds’ assets carried at fair value.
At April 30, 2019, the gross unrealized appreciation and depreciation on investments owned by the Funds, based on cost for federal income tax purposes, were as follows:
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